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3PL third-party logistics.
63-20 VehicleA type of nonprofit corporation (a financial vehicle), defined by Internal Revenue Service code 63-20, which allows a private sponsor to advance a public project, provided the financed facilities will ultimately be owned by a public agency after the bonds are paid.
µg/m3 microgrammes per cubic meter; a unit of air pollutant concentration.
AB 664A 1977 California Assembly Bill that allocated bridge tolls collected on the San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Dumbarton, and San Mateo-Hayward Bridges to further the development of public transportation near these toll bridges.
AB 32A California law, signed in September 2006, to protect California from catastrophic economic, environmental, and social consequences of global climate change.
ABAGThe Association of Bay Area Governments, a land-use planning agency for the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area in California, that provides demographic, financial, administrative, training, and conference services to local governments and businesses.
Absolute Block SystemA railway signaling system where the line is divided into sections called blocks, and a train may enter a block section only after the last train ahead has exited.
ACAlternating current.
ACEThe Altamont Commuter Express in the Stockton/San Jose area.
ADAAmericans With Disabilities Act
AFCAutomatic Fare Collection
AFSCMEAmerican Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME); The Executive Board includes 11 elected officers who serve two-year terms. Three trustees serve three-year terms with one Trustee elected each year.
Air Quality ConformityA project's adherence to all federal regulations regarding air quality.
Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)1990 Federal civil rights legislation that ensures public transportation services accommodate people with various physical limitations such as blindness, deafness, and wheelchair requirement, or provide a parallel paratransit service for those who cannot use the fixed-route bus system.
APMautomated people mover (APM)
APTAAmerican Passenger Transportation Association. www.apta.com
AQAPAir Quality Action Plan.
AQMAAir Quality Management Area.
AQSAir Quality Strategy.
aquiferA geological formation; an area of ground where rainwater collects and can be used to feed a well or spring.
Article XIX Restrictiona provision in the California Constitution that limits the use of state gasoline tax revenues to projects related to roadway (including bicycle and pedestrian projects) or fixed guide way (rail or trolley coach) improvements.
articulated busA type of bus that bends in the middle. These buses are usually 60 ft long and have an accordion joint in the middle. (Also known as "Artics")
As-Built DrawingsEngineering plans that take into account changes that were made during construction. Also known as Record Drawings.
At-gradeSee Grade.
ATAAmerican Trucking Association.
ATCAutomatic Train Control system.
Automated Guide-wayan electric railway (single or multi-car trains) of guided transit vehicles operating without an on-board crew. Service may be scheduled or in response to a passenger activated call button. (see automated people mover) .
Automated People Mover (APM) or "people mover"; a fully automated, grade-separated mass transit system.
Automatic Block SignalA method of controlling train movement (see Positive Train Control).
Automatic Fare Collection (AFC)Any of various systems where fares are collected by means of a special card or pass that electronically detects the user, and possibly debits and account.
Automatic Train ControlA device attached to the train that can override engineers actions and stop the train if certain conditions are not met.(see Positive Train Control).
automatic vehicle location (AVL)Systems the train company uses to calculate running times.
AVLautomatic vehicle location.
AVOAverage Vehicle Occupancy.
BACBicycle Advisory Committee
Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act(see Brown Act.)
BARTSan Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) San Francisco, CA; ranked 13 in unlinked passenger trips, \fiscal year 2006 (Thousands) at 103,654.1.
Base serviceThe number of buses that remain in service the entire day, excluding buses that only operate during school and commute hour service.
Below grade(see grade.)
Beneficial OccupancyWhen a project is finished early and is ready for use earlier than expected.
BermA raised section of land.>
Bi-directional SignalingA two-way signaling system that allows trains to run in either direction over the same section of track.
Bicycle Advisory Committee; every municipality should have a Bicycle Advisory Committee ; in Los Angeles, ours is found at www.bicyclela.org/AdvisoryBoard.
Bicycle FacilitiesAccommodations for cyclists, such as bike racks, lockers, and ramps.
BidAn offer to perform specified services at a specified cost.
Bike Lane (Class II)A lane on the paved area of a road, marked for preferential use by bicycles, usually located along the edge of the paved area or between traffic and cars parked on the street.
Bike Path (Class I)a path designated for the exclusive use by bicycles. See Sharrows.
Bike Route (Class III, shared)A street identified as for use by cyclists, but with no special lane markings; bicycle traffic shares the roadway with motor vehicles.
BLMBureau of Land Management.
Blockthe daily assignment for an individual bus. One or more runs can work a block.
BogieThe part of the train that holds the wheel axles. in PRT, a bougie is a cart that contains the wheels, to which the carriage is attached.
BPEOBest Practicable Environmental Option.
BPICBicycle Plan Implementation Committee.
Bridge Toll Allocation PolicyA California authority that oversees the collection and use of the tolls from San Fransisco Bay area Bridges. (See AB 664.)
Brown ActCalifornia law (Government Code §§ 54950-54962) which governs meeting access for local public bodies and requires that all official business be conducted in public and that the public may speak. State agencies are governed by the Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act. (check out www.thefirstamendment.org/brownact, and www.vanguardnews.com/brownact".
BRTBus Rapid Transit.
BRUBus Rider's Union found at www.thestrategycenter.org
BTABridge Toll Allocation Policy.
BTU British Thermal Unit. Btu corresponds to the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one pound mass of water by 1° F.
Bus Rider's UnionA Los Angeles bus activist organization dedicated to achieving racial justice in transportation. www.thestrategycenter.org
Bus shelterThe roof and walls around a bus stop that provide minimal protection from the weather and substantial advertising space.
CAAClean Air Act (CAA).
CAAAClean Air Act Amendments.
CAFRComprehensive Annual Financial Report.
California / Nevada Super Speed Train CommissionAn effort in the early 1990s to build a high speed, mag lev train between LA and Las Vegas.
California Air Resources Board (CARB)a California state board charged with overseeing AB 32 (The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006) which requires a 25 percent reduction of California’s GHGe to 1990 levels by 2020. , found at www.arb.ca.gov.
California Department of TransportationCalifornia state agency responsible for building, maintaining and operating state highways and certain intercity rail services, among other things. www.dot.ca.gov.
California High-Speed Rail Authoritya California State agency that oversees planning and construction of an intercity high-speed rail system. The HSRA was created by legislation in 1996 as an independent authority with nine board members appointed by the Governor and legislature. (see also High Speed Rail.)
California Research Bureau (CRB)A nonpartisan research group that provides services to the Governor and his staff, to both houses of the legislature, and to other state elected officials.
California Traffic Control Devices Committee (CTCDC)part of California DOT in charge of consulting with local agencies and the public, before adopting rules and regulations prescribing uniform standards and specifications for all official traffic control devices used in California; found at www.dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/signtech/newtech/
California Transportation CommissionA nine member, state-level commission appointed by the governor, that allocates state transit funds. See Corridor Mobility Improvement Account. Corridor Mobility Improvement Account.
California Transportation Plan (CTP)a statewide, long-range transportation plan for meeting our future mobility needs. The CTP defines goals, policies, and strategies to achieve our collective vision for California’s future transportation system. This plan, with a minimum 20-year planning horizon, is prepared in response to federal and State requirements and is updated every five years. http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/tpp/offices/osp/ctp.html.
CaltrainSan Francisco Bay Area.
CALTRANSCalifornia Department of Transportation, also known as California DOT
California Department of Transportationa California state agency responsible for operating and maintaining the state highway system, as well as planning and designing related capital improvement projects. CalTrans was created by state legislation in 1972, consolidating the Department of Public Works and Aeronautics.
CantThe angle or curve of a segment of track or cable. (see Catenary).
Capital District Transportation Authority (CDTA)in Albany, N.Y.
Capital FundsMoney dedicated for building physical infrastructure, as opposed to Operating Funds, which is money used for things like driver salaries, and fuel.
CARBCalifornia Air Resources Board, found at www.arb.ca.gov/homepage.
carbon monoxideA carbon molecule with one oxygen attached, one of the many unhealthful things that that combustion engines exhale.
Catenarythe system of wires suspended above the track to electric power to the trains; the curve of a suspended chain or wire.
CDL 1-4One of two types of driver's license required to drive a bus in California; CDL1-4 is used for the first four years of driving and requires that the holder complete eight hours a year of additional training. After their fifth year of documented training the California Department of Motor Vehicles issues operators a VTT (Verification of Transit Training), which is valid for another five-year period. (see CDL 5 and VTT.)
CDL 5The last eight hours of classroom training for bus operators who are in their final year of licensing. After their fifth year of documented training the California Department of Motor Vehicles issues operators a VTT (Verification of Transit Training), which is valid for another five-year period. see CDL 1-4 and VTT.
CDTACapital District Transportation Authority.
CENELEC Comité Européen de Normalisation Électrotechnique (European Committee For Electrical Standards).
Centralized Traffic Control (CTC)a method of controlling train movement by means of devices installed on all trains on the system. (see Positive Train Control).
CEQCouncil of Environmental Quality.
CETAPCommunity and Environmental Transportation Acceptability Process in California.
CHSRAThe California High-Speed Rail Authority in charge of planning designing, constructing, and operating a high speed, steel wheels on steel rails train system to connect Northern California to Southern California.
CIPCapital Improvement Program.
Citywide BikewayAccording to the Los Angeles bike plan, a bike path, bike lane, or Commuter Bike Facility that will form the backbone of a citywide system. See Sharrows.
Class I (Bike Path)A path designated for the exclusive use by bicycles. See Sharrows.
Class II (Bike Lane)A lane on the paved area of a road, marked for preferential use by bicycles, usually located along the edge of the paved area or between traffic and cars parked on the street.
Class III (Bike Route)a street identified as for use by cyclists, but with no special lane markings; bicycle traffic shares the roadway with motor vehicles.
Clean Air Act (CAA)Federal law enacted in 1977 and amended and refined in various ways since, which seeks to ensure equitable protections of the nation's air quality. See www.osha.gov/dep/oia/whistleblower/acts/caa.)
cliff railwaySee funicular.
CMConstruction Manager; a professional who serves as the owner's principal agent in the management of a construction project or program, where the CM is responsible to the owner for managing the planning, design, construction and post construction phases, or portions thereof. The CM represents the interests of the owner in its dealings with other construction professionals, and with other private and public entities.
CMACongestion Management Agency.
CMAAConstruction Management Association of America, found at cmaanet.org/.
CMAQCongestion Mitigation and Air Quality, in California – CARB, found at www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/cmaqpgs/.
CMIACorridor Mobility Improvement Account (CMIA)
CNGcompressed natural gas (CNG).
CNSSTCCalifornia-Nevada Super Speed Train Commission, an effort in the early 1990s to build a high speed, mag lev train between LA and Las Vegas.
CO2Carbon dioxide, a carbon molecule with two oxygen atoms stuck to it, the stuff we all exhale; see carbon monoxide.
Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS)are generic parts that are typically far less expensive and far more available than any custom made part.
Commuter RailA rail technology designed for local travel, with self-powered cars on a lighter track that used for heavy freight, and generally better turning radius than regular Heavy Rail or freight rail.
Conductor RailAn electrified third rail used on electric railways where power is transmitted to trains from the track.
Conforming TIPa Transportation Improvement Program (TIP), that meets or must meet Federal regulations requiring such things as assessment of the project's impact on the local air quality. (see Air Quality Conformity).
CorridorA general or specific area of real estate covering a specific traffic route; for example, in Los Angeles, the I405 corridor is an important traffic route which may be seen as including Sepulveda blvd (which runs along the 405 freeway).
Corridor Mobility Improvement Account (CMIA)funds available to the California Transportation Commission, upon appropriation in the annual Budget Bill by the Legislature, for performance improvements on state highways and major access routes. The California Highway Safety, Traffic Reduction, Air Quality, and Port Security Bond Act of 2006, approved by the voters as Proposition 1B on November 7, 2006, includes a program of funding from $4.5 billion to be deposited in the Corridor Mobility Improvement Account (CMIA).
COTSCommercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS)
CouchetteA four to six-berth sleeping compartment.
Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ)a federal body which coordinates environmental efforts and works closely with agencies and other White House offices in the development of environmental policies and initiatives. found at http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/ceq/. (See also EPA, EIS, and CEQ.)
CRBCalifornia Research Bureau (CRB).
CSRContractor Safety Representative.
CTCEither California Transportation Commission or Centralized Traffic Control.
CTCDCThe California Traffic Control Devices Committee
CTPCalifornia Transportation Plan (CTP).
Damperspart of the train's suspension system designed to absorb shock or noise.
DARTDallas Area Rapid Transit (DART); Dallas, TX , ranked 21 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 77,010.1
dBOne unit along decibel scale of noise level. This is not an additive system of units (as for example, meters or kilograms are) but a proportional system (a logarithmic progression). A change of 10 dB corresponds to a doubling of loudness; changes of less than 3 dB are not normally regarded as noticeable.
Deadhead operationnon-revenue bus operation, usually a trip from, to, or between lines or garages.
DEDDragging Equipment Detector, a device that detects equipment dragging on the rails.
defects per million opportunities (DPMO)defects per million opportunities (DPMO); in process improvement efforts, defects per million opportunities or DPMO is a measure of process performance. It is defined as 1,000,000 times number of defects divided by number of units times number of opportunities per unit failure.
DEIRDraft Environmental Impact Report.
Design-build-financeA way of financing a project so that allows earlier project completion. Procurement follows normal agency procedures, but specifies a maximum time for completion of the project and a payment schedule that exceeds the prescribed time, thus requiring short-term financing by the private entity.
Developments of Regional Impacts (DRI)In Florida, real estate project that fall under jurisdiction of two 1972 land use programs within Chapter 380, Florida Statutes, (the Environmental Land and Water Management Act): Section 380.05, Florida Statutes, to protect areas of critical state concern through state designation; and Section 380.06, Florida Statutes, to regulate developments of regional impact through regional and state oversight by means of an appeal process.
DGE Diesel Gallon Equivalent; the amount of CNG containing the same energy content as one gallon of diesel. Ultra-low sulfur diesel has slightly less energy than traditional diesel, so 1.35 therms per DGE is commonly cited conversion rate.
Diesel Multiple Unit (DMU)a diesel powered train with a traction system contained under various cars (or as with the Colorado Railcar DMU, self-propelled railcars eliminating the need for more costly locomotive-hauled push/pull trains in lower density corridors).
Diesela fuel composed of petroleum distillates with a boiling point and specific gravity higher than gasoline.
Direct CostsThe field costs directly attributed to the construction of a project, including labor, material, equipment, subcontracts and their associated costs.
DMUDiesel Multiple Unit (DMU)
DRIDevelopments of Regional Impacts (DRI)
DRTDDenver Regional Transportation District (RTD) Denver, CO , ranked 18 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 86,571.4.
Direct Traffic Control (DTC)a radio-based train control system for non-signaled lines.
DL260The California Department of Motor Vehicles form used to document the annual training hours received by a bus operator through the CDL 1-4 and CDL 5 courses. The completed DL 260 is submitted to the DMV in the final year of an employee's driver license and VTT (Verification of Transit Training) validity, enabling the employee to receive a VTT and license renewal. Also see CDL 1-4, CDL 5 and VTT.
DMVDepartment of Motor Vehicles.
DOTEither the US Department of Transportation, a federal agency, created by federal legislation in 1966, responsible for administering policies and programs to protect and enhance the safety, adequacy, and efficiency of the nation’s transportation system and services, or one of the State Departments of Transportation.
DPMO defects per million opportunities
Dragging Equipment Detector (DED)A device created to alert a railway control center that a train has derailed or a part of the train is dragging on the right of way.
DRI. Developments of Regional Impacts
DTC Direct Traffic Control
E-76Also known as fnm-76 Autroization Agreement Summary, a federal authorization to proceed with a project, based on preliminary engineering (PE), right of way, utility relocation, and construction phases.
EADEnvironmental Affairs Department.
EISEnvironmental Impact Statement
Environmental Assessments (EA)the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made. See Environmental Impact Statements.
EA Environmental Assessments
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)A document required of all federal agencies by the National Environmental Policy Act used to access the positive and negative environmental effects of proposed agency action citing alternative actions.
EPAUnited States Environmental Protection Agency.
FAHPFederal-Aid Highway Program, a federal funding source for public transit.
Farebox recovery ratiothe portion of operating costs paid for by passenger fares (including inter-agency agreements related to fares).
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)FHWA is charged with the broad responsibility of ensuring that America’s roads and highways continue to be the safest and most technologically up-to-date. Although State, local, and tribal governments own most of the Nation’s highways, The FHWA provides financial and technical support to them for constructing, improving, and preserving America’s highway system. (See .)(www.fhwa.dot.gov).
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)part of the U.S. DOT which provides (1) grants for construction, facilities and in some cases operation, (2) technical assistance, (3) program management and oversight to ensure projects are built on time and within budget, (4) transit policy and guidance to customers; and by proposing to Congress legislative initiatives, (5) ideas and strategies to improve operations, promote state of good repair and introduce new technologies and innovation. (See www.fta.dot.gov/).
Feeder lineA transit line that services outlying neighborhoods with low-frequency access to more important lines via transfer.
Federal Highway AdministrationUnited States Federal Highway Administration (part of the DOT), a federal agency involved with public transit.
FMCFederal Maritime Commission.
Freightnon-passenger cargo.
Frequencythe number of buses or trains per hour. Also see Headway
Froga device fitted to a track intersection to facilitate the passage of the train over the junction.
FTAFederal Transit Administration
funiculara short distance transit system in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a very steep slope, the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalancing each other. (See wikipedia.org/wiki/Funicular and www.pfranc.com/projects/funic/funic.htm.)
GangwayA plate between trains, providing access from one part of the train to another.
GARVEEGrant Anticipation Revenue Vehicle (otherwise known as “GARVEE bonds”) tax-exempt anticipation notes backed by annual federal transportation appropriations. In other words, GARVEE bonds allow the state to borrow against future federal funding.
GCRTAGreater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority
GGE Gasoline Gallon Equivalent. GGE corresponds to the amount of CNG containing the same energy content as one gallon of gasoline. The typical conversion rate is 1.25 therms per GGE.
GHGegreenhouse gas emissions.
GilligA bus manufacturer located in Hayward, California.
Gradethe elevation of track or corridor; transportation alternatives are often made to run above or below street level or pedestrian traffic in order to reduce noise and risk of collision. (See grade-separated.)
grade-separatedA transit system that will travel at a different elevation than other traffic. For example a rail system that runs under ground is grade separated from the cars and pedestrians, if it runs along an elevated freeway, it is grade separated from pedestrians but not the cars. Grade separation is important because it is much safer (and somewhat faster), but it is also more costly (and much more costly if done after a few deaths and a lawsuit).
Green chemistrySee epa.gov/greenchemistry/pubs/principles.html.
greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe)Air pollution that could contribute to changes in the Earth’s climate for generations to come; including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons-11, -12, and -13, chlorodifluoromethane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds.
Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (GCRTA)in Cleveland, OH; ranked 25 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 69,199.2.
HeadsignThe sign above the front windshield of a bus that identifies the route or destination.
HeadwayThe time between consecutive buses or trains moving the same direction on the same line. See also Frequency.
Heavy RailA high volume rail type that uses long self-propelled trains with an on-boart crew. Usually operated at higher speeds and with less tolerance for cross-traffic than commuter rail. (See also light rail.)
High Occupancy Tolla transit strategy where access to special lanes of highway is sold by monthly passes. See “Congestion Pricing a Lane at a Time” by Gordon J. Fielding and Daniel B. Klein.
High Occupancy Vehiclebuses and automobiles carrying more than one passenger; Lanes reserved for use by High Occupancy Vehicles, marked with a diamond symbol and HOV signs.
High Speed Rail Corridora geographical area designated by the Federal Railroad Administration to receive specially targeted funding for highway-rail grade crossing safety improvements, and recognized as a potential center of HSR activity. (See also Corridor.)
High Speed Rail (HSR)any rail technology involving trains traveling at top speeds of 90 to 300mph, often by upgrading existing infrastructure. This service may require separate, dedicated tracks and "sealed" corridors in which grade crossings have been eliminated, either through closure or through the construction of highway underpasses or overpasses.
Highway Trust FundThe federal Highway Trust Fund (HTF) was created in 1956 to fund the nation’s highway system. The HTF, which is administered by the US Department of Transportation (DOT), derives the majority of its revenue from federal excise taxes on gasoline, diesel, gasohol, and special fuels. The federal excise tax on gasoline has been imposed at 18.4 cents per gallon since 1993, while diesel fuel taxes are set at 24.4 cents per gallon. Revenues from excise and sales taxes on tires, trucks, trailers, and heavy commercial vehicles are also deposited into the HTF, as well as fi nes levied from penalties for violations of federal highway safety laws.
HSRAHigh-Speed Rail Authority. (See also California High-Speed Rail Authority.)
HSRTHigh Speed Regional Transport.
HTF Highway Trust Fund
Hybrid BusA bus that runs on a combination of fossil fuel combined with electric power, using an onboard generator powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell supplies electricity.
Hydrogen Fuel CellA fuel type that uses hydrogen to power a motor without smog-producing exhaust. Unfortunately, hydrogen is not a fuel source; it must be produced from other energy sources which are very likely to be polluting, and since more energy is required to make hydrogen that is achieved when using it, the net effect is more pollution.
IAIA International Association for Impact Assessment
International Association for Impact Assessmenta forum for advancing innovation, development, and communication of best practice for the application of environmental, social, health and other forms of assessment in which sound science and full public participation provide a foundation for equitable and sustainable development. Found at www.iaia.org.
IIPInterregional Improvement Program.
Interregional Improvement Programa type of California state funding created in SB 45 for intercity rail, interregional road or rail expansion projects outside urban areas, or projects of statewide significance. (see ITIP).
ILEVInherently Low Emission Vehicle.
Inclined Railway(see funicular.)
Inter-city busesLong distance bus service, usually with separate luggage compartments and restroom facilities and high-backed seats.
InterliningCombining two bus routes end-to-end for more cost-effective operation. Interlined routes may retain their separate numbers to ease the change for long-time users.
Intermodaltravel which involves more than one mode, for example, bike and bus. Often the pedestrian portion of travel is ignored because all trips are assumed to include walking.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991Federal transportation legislation that expired in 1997. ISTEA emphasized diversity and balance of modes, as well as the preservation of existing systems before construction of new facilities. Much of ISTEA's program structure is carried forward in new federal legislation See TEA 21 and SAFETEA-LU.
International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA)an organization involved with the Environmental Impact process. See Environmental Impact Statements.
Interregional Transportation Improvement Program (ITIP)a California program where Caltrans nominates and the CTC approves, a list of interregional highway and rail projects for 25 percent of the funds to be programmed in the STIP (the other 75 percent are RIP funds). (see IIP).
ISTEAIntermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991
ITIP Interregional Transportation Improvement Program
JARC Job Access/Reverse Commute
Job Access/Reverse Commute (JARC)A federal transit grant program established to addreess the unique transportation challenges faced by welfare recipients and low-income persons seeking to obtain and maintain employment. (see www.fta.dot.gov/funding/grants/grants_financing_3550.)
JunctionWhere paths or tracks cross.
King County DOT(King County Metro) Seattle, WA, ranked 12 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 106,273.6.
Kneeling BusA bus technology that lowers the floor to the curb or to near-curb level to make it easier for passengers to board, especially for seniors and persons with disabilities.
LABACLos Angeles Bicycle Advisory Committee
LACBCLos Angeles County Bicycle Coalition
LACMTALos Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority in Los Angeles, CA, ranked 3 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 482,815.9. (www.metro.net)
LAeqEquivalent Continuous Sound Level: The LAeq level gives a single figure to describe a sound that varies over a given time period.
LAMCLos Angeles Municipal Code.
LAPDLos Angeles Police Department.
LAUPTLos Angeles Union Passenger Terminal (Also known as Union Station).
LAUSshorthand for Los Angeles Union Station.
LAUSDLos Angeles Unified School District.
Layover TimeNon-travel time built into a bus or train schedule, usually at each end of a route, to allow for a driver's break and schedule recovery. They may be scheduled at other points to allow for timed transfer connections. Layover time rules are generally dictated by union contracts. (Also known as a spot time.) (See also timed transfer).
LEEDLeadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), a design methodology developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) which includes a list of considerations for green building design and a rating system for a buildings “greenness” Green Building Rating System, developed by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. Since its inception in 1998, LEED has grown to encompass more than 14,000 projects in the United States and 30 countries covering 1.062 billion square feet (99 km²) of development area.[2][citation needed] The hallmark of LEED is that it is an open and transparent process where the technical criteria proposed by the LEED committees are publicly reviewed for approval by the more than 10,000 membership organizations that currently constitute the USGBC. See www.usgbc.org/ and wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design.
Light RailA type of rail thechnology which can operate on non-exclusive right-of-way. A metropolitan-electric railway system characterized by its ability to operate in a variety of environments such as streets, subways, or elevated structures. Light rail systems can operate on streets with other traffic. They typically use an overhead source for their electrical power and boardings can take place from the street or from platforms. Light rail have stricter limits on their length and the frequency of service than heavy rail systems.
Liquidated DamagesMoney a contractor agrees to pay for delays in completing specified work in accordance with the contract documents.
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to -259 degrees Fahrenheit (-161 degrees Celsius) and then condensed into a colorless, odorless, non-corrosive and non-toxic liquid. LNG is characterized as a cryogenic liquid. See CNG).
Los Angeles Bicycle Advisory CommitteeCity of Los Angeles Bicycle Advisory Committee formed in 1974 by Mayor Bradley, today the BAC advises the Los Angeles Department of Transportation (LADOT) and Planning Department on issues relevant to bicycling for transportation and the implementation of the City's Bicycle Plan. The BAC also advises the Department of Recreation and Parks on issues regarding recreational bicycling. The BAC is comprised of members appointed by each of the Council members and the Mayor. The full BAC meets the first Tuesday of every even month (February, April, June, August, October, December) at 7pm in the LAPD's Parker Center Auditorium 150 N. Los Angeles Street, LA CA 90012. The BAC's subcommittees (Advocacy, Bikeway Engineering, Education and Promotion, and Planning) meet in the odd months. (see www.lacity.org/ladot/bicycle/AdvisoryBoard).
Los Angeles County Bicycle Coalition (LACBC)a nonprofit, membership-based organization and working to build a better, more bike-able Los Angeles County since 1998. (see la-bike.org)
Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA)The local authority that oversees transportation infrastructure in Los Angeles, commonly called "Metro" or "LA METRO" www.metro.net.
LRTLight Rail Transit.
MARTAMetropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Atlanta, GA , ranked 9 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 138,403.3.
MBTAMassachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA); Boston, MA , ranked 5 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 380,260.7.
MMBtu One Million Btu.
MCIMotor Coach Industries, a bus manufacturer.
MDTMiami-Dade Transit (MDT) Miami, FL , ranked 10 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 107,094.1.
Methane (CH4), commonly known as natural gas, is an abundant, colorless gas that burns efficiently without many byproducts. As methane is naturally odorless, it has a distinctive odor added as a safety measure.
MetraNortheast IL Regional Commuter Railroad Corp (Metra) Chicago, IL , ranked 23 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 72,064.3
MetroA common name many cities call the local authority that oversees bus infrastructure; in Los Angeles, their formal name is the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LACMTA) www.metro.net.
MetroMetropolitan Transit Auth of Harris County, Texas (Metro) Houston, TX , ranked 14 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at , ranked x in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 102,477.6.
Metro Transit Minneapolisin MN, ranked 22 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 73,356.6.
MetrolinkSouthern California's regional commuter rail service and is in its 15th year of operations. The Southern California Regional Rail Authority, a joint powers authority made up of an 11-member board representing the transportation commissions of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino and Ventura counties, governs the service. Metrolink continues to be one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, operating over seven routes through a six-county 512 route-mile network.www.metrolinktrains.com
Metropolitan Planning Organizationa federally required planning body responsible for the transportation planning and project selection in its region; the governor designates an MPO in every urbanized area with a population of over 50,000 people. SCAG is the Southern California Region’s MPO. California has 18 Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). In many cases the same organization will act as both MPO and RTPA for a region.
Metropolitan Statistical AreaA geographic entity having a core area with a large population nucleus, plus adjacent communities with a high degree of economic and social integration with that core.
Metropolitan Transportation Commissionthe transportation planning, financing and coordinating agency for the nine counties that touch San Francisco Bay.
modalPertaining to something's mode.
Modea particular form of travel such as walking, traveling by automobile, traveling by bus, traveling by bicycle, or traveling by train).
Mode Splittravel using using various specified modes of transportation.
ModelAn analytical tool (often mathematical) used by transportation planners to assist in making forecasts of land use, economic activity, travel activity and their effects on the quality of resources such as land, air and water.
MOLIn LA, Metro Orange Line.
Monoraila type of electric railway using guided transit vehicles on a guide-way formed by a single beam, rail, or tube.
MPOMetropolitan Planning Organization
MTAIn tranist finance, Mass Transit Account (part of the HTF). Highway Trust Fund
MTAIn Maryland Transit Administration (MTA); Baltimore, MD , ranked 11 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 107,024.1.
MTA LIRRMTA Long Island Rail Road (MTA LIRR) of New York, NY; ranked 16 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 99,520.0.
MTA-MNCRMetro-North Commuter Railroad Company (MTA-MNCR) New York, NY , ranked 20 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 77,070.7.
MTABUSMTA Bus Company (MTABUS) New York, NY , ranked 17 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 99,169.4.
MTCMetropolitan Transportation Commission.
Multimodaltravel by more than one mode; A multimodal approach to transportation planning focuses on the most efficient way of getting people or goods from place to place by means other than privately owned vehicles; by train, bicycle, automobile, airplane, bus, boat, or foot.
MUNISan Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) San Francisco, CA , ranked 8 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 210,848.3. mmmmmm wwwwwww
NAAQSNational Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).
NABINorth American Bus Industries; a bus make located in Anniston, Alabama.
National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA)National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) = Federal policy requiring agencies to prepare a detailed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and transmit the EIS for comment, prior to taking any action that might impact environmental health. See Environmental Impact Statements.
National Highway System (NHS) Our approximately 160,000-mile network consisting of the 42,500 miles of the Interstate system, plus other key roads and arterials throughout the United States. Designated by Congress in 1995 pursuant to a requirement of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act, the NHS is designed to provide an interconnected system of principal routes to serve major travel destinations and population centers.
National Surface Transportation Infrastructure Financing CommissionA federal commission charged with analyzing future highway and transit needs, evaluating the economic outlook of the Highway Trust Fund, and recommending alternative approaches to financing transportation. See SAFETEA-LU.
National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study CommissionA federal commission that expired on July 7, 2008, It's findings can be found at www.transportationfortomorrow.
National Transit Database (NTD)A repository established by Congress to be the Nation’s primary source for information and statistics on the transit systems of the United States. http://www.ntdprogram.gov See Environmental Impact Statements.
NCTDNorth County Transit District in San Diego, California.
NEPACalifornia state law imposing requirements like the EIS for particular state actions, such as an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) under the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA). See Environmental Impact Statements.
New FlyerA bus manufacturer with headquarters is in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and the assembly plant is located in Crookston, Minnesota.
New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ TRANSIT) A transit company in New York, NY, ranked 7 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 255,294.3.
NFPANational Fire Protection Association mmmmmm wwwwwww
NHSNational Highway System
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; mmmmmm www.nhtsa.gov
NIMBYNot In My Back Yard. The term is used to describe opposition to a new project by residents, even if they themselves and those around will benefit from the construction. Often, the new project being opposed is generally considered a benefit for many, but residents nearby the immediate location consider it undesirable and would generally prefer the building to be "elsewhere".
NJDOTNew Jersey Department of Transportation.
NO2Nitrogen dioxide; an odorless, brown gas, resulting from traditional internal combustion engines.
nonconformities per million opportunities (NPMO)A measure of process performance. See DPMO.
North American Bus Industries (NABI)A manufacturer of transit buses in Anniston, Alabama.
NOxNitrogen oxides: a collective term for the various oxides of nitrogen,principally nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide.
NPMOSee nonconformities per million opportunities.
NSTIFCNational Surface Transportation Infrastructure Financing Commission.
NSTPRSCNational Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study Commission.
NYCTMTA New York City Transit (NYCT) New York, NY, ranked 1 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 2,803,463.9.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)A division of the US Department of Labor, concerned with work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths. Since the agency was created in 1971, occupational deaths have been cut by 62% and injuries have declined by 42%. (www.osha.gov)
OCTAOrange County Transportation Authority; Orange County California.
OFAOffice of Federal Activities
Office of Federal Activitiespart of the EPA; in 1978, the Council of Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into a Memorandum of Agreement which transferred to EPA operational duties associated with the administrative aspects of the environmental impact statement (EIS) filing process. The Office of Federal Activities has been designated the official recipient in EPA of all EISs. It should be noted that the operational duties associated with the administrative aspects of the EIS process are totally separate from the substantive EPA reviews performed pursuant to both NEPA and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act. Found at http://www.epa.gov/oecaerth/about/offices/ofa.html. (See also EPA, EIS, CEQ).
OIGOffice of the Inspector General.
Open Meeting ActA California law; Bagley-Keene Open Meeting Act; (see Brown Act. )
Operating Fundsmoney used to fund general, day-to-day costs such as fuel, salaries and replacement parts. (Also see Capital Funds).
Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA)Orange county, California; Deborah Barmack, Executive Director.
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov
P3public-private partnerships
PATH Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation.
Paratransittransit service for people who cannot use regular fixed-route bus service.
people movera fully automated, grade-separated mass transit system, often traveling in a loop, such as the sky train system.
APMautomated people mover (APM), or people mover
PMOProject Management Oversight office.
POLA/LBPorts of Los Angeles and Long Beach.
Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation (PATH)New York, NY , ranked 19 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 78,283.0.
public-private partnerships FHWA defines the P3 concept as "a contractual agreement formed between public and private sector partners, which allows more private sector participation than is traditional. The agreements usually involve a government agency contracting with a private company to renovate, construct, operate, maintain, and/or manage a facility or system. While the public sector usually retains ownership in the facility or system, the private party will be given additional decision rights in determining how the project or task will be completed."
Positive Train Control (PTC)a type of train safety technology that automatically monitors and controls train movements, overriding or supplementing human on-board control. Alternative methods for communicating and enforcing train control include “Track Warrant Control”, Automatic Block Signal (ABS), Centralized Traffic Control (CTC), and Train Control System (TCS). Several PTC development projects are underway, however none have so far been adopted full scale. A 2005 American Association of Railroads report on PTC list describes the technology as expensive and complex, and not yet proven.
PTCPositive Train Control
Project Management Oversightan office of the FTA that provides continuous review and evaluation of grantee and FTA processes to ensure compliance with statutory, administrative, and regulatory requirements. See fta.dot.gov/.
project managerthe person, usually employed by the RTS, designated to be in overall charge of the project.
Proposition 108 Passenger Rail and Clean Air Bond Act of 1990a California state ballot initiative that authorized $1 billion in GO bonds for intercity rail, commuter rail, and rail transit programs. (Proposition 108 was linked to passage of Proposition 111, the Traffic Congestion Relief and Spending Limitation Act of 1990.)
Proposition 111 Traffic Congestion Relief and Spending Limitation Act (1990)a California state ballot initiative that increased revenues for transportation, modifi ed the state’s spending limit, and changed the formula used to calculate the state’s school funding guarantee.
Proposition 116 Clean Air and Transportation Improvement Act of 1990a California state ballot initiative that authorized $2.0 billion in GO bonds, mostly for rail capital outlay.
Proposition 192 Seismic Retrofit Bond Act of 1996a California state ballot initiative that authorized $2 billion in GO bonds for reconstruction, replacement, and retrofit t of state-owned toll bridges and highway bridges.
Proposition 1A Transportation Funding Protection (2006)a California state ballot initiative.
Proposition 1B Highway Safety, Traffic Reduction, Air Quality, and Port Security Bond Act of 2006A CAlifornia state ballot initiative.
Proposition 218 Voter Approval for Local Government Taxes. Limitations on Fees, Assessments, and ChargesA 1996 California state ballot initiative.
Proposition 42 Transportation Congestion Improvement Act (2002)A California state ballot initiative that amended the state constitution to permanently dedicate the sales tax on motor vehicle fuels to transportation beginning in 2003-04. Maintained the Traffic Congestion Relief Act (TCRA). Proposition 42 provided that beginning in 2008-09, when the TCRP ends, revenues from the sales tax on motor vehicle fuels will no longer be transferred from the TIF to the TCRF for the 141 projects. Instead, 40 percent of these revenues will be allocated from the TIF to cities and counties for local projects, 40 percent to STIP projects, and 20 percent to public transportation.
PSI Pounds per Square Inch. PSI refers to pressure measured with respect to atmosphere pressure. Pressure gauges are adjusted to read zero at the surrounding atmospheric pressure.
PTAPublic Transportation Account.
PTCpositive train control
PTPPeople's Transportation Plan campaign in Miami led by former Mayor Alex Penelas; in 2008, Mayor Carlos Alvarez, who was elected in 2004. said 'The harsh reality is the PTP was over-promised,'' said ``Too much was promised to too many people. . . . The campaign worked -- and at the same time it failed. Expectations, even today, are unrealistic, unworkable and unaffordable.''
Public Transportation Accountan account, established in 1971 to support public transportation .
Pull-in TimeWhen the transit vehicle arrives at the stop or station.
Pull-out TimeWhen the transit vehicle leaves the stop.
PVLPerris Valley Line; Perris Valley, California.
Quality Assurance (QA)A component of product design that uses specific methodologies to ensure the finished product meets certain quality specifications.
Quality Control (QC)testing and review to ensure on-going quality.
RCTC Riverside County Transportation Commission
Riverside County Transportation Commission (RCTC)Riverside, California; Anne Mayer, Executive Director. (www.rctc.org)
Record Drawingssee As-Built Drawings.
Recovery ScheduleA schedule that shows actions and special efforts required to recover lost time in the original Master Schedule. It can depict activities of any member of the project Team. [CMAA].
Red Linein Los Angeles, California, a heavy rail line from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park (1993), Wilshire/Western (1996), to Hollywood/Vine (1999) and to North Hollywood (2000).
Regional Transportation Improvement Programa California funding program that includes RIP funds, which make up 75 percent of the funds available for programming in the STIP. RTPAs prepare the RTIP consistent with the RTP to reflect priorities identified by county CMAs, project sponsors and members of the public. The CTC must approve the entire RTIP list or reject it in its entirety. Once the CTC approves an RTIP, it is combined with those from other regions to comprise 75 percent of the funds in the STIP.
Regional Transportation PlanA 20 year plan, required by state and federal law, used to guide a region's transportation development, and updated every two years and based on projections of growth and travel demand coupled with financial projections.
Regional Transportation Planning Agencies26 Regional Transportation Planning Agencies (RTPAs) created by special legislation in California that administer state funds, allocate federal and local funds, and select projects for the Regional Transportation Improvement Program in the STIP. The agencies include councils of governments (COGs), local associations of government, and local transportation commissions. The first RTPAs were created by the Transportation Development Act in 1971. RTPAs administer state funds, allocate federal and local funds, and select projects for the Regional Transportation Improvement Program in the STIP.
Regional Transportation Planning AgencyA state-designated agency responsible for preparing the Regional Transportation Plan and the Regional Transportation Improvement Program, administering state funds, and other tasks.
Request for QuotationA document outlining the requirements of a project, which is published for the purpose of gaining bid quotes from contractors to build the project.
Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA)a division of the Transportation Safety Institute. A Federal service concerned with transportation safety investigation and education. (www.tsi.dot.gov)
Return to Sourcea requirement of some funding programs (such as TDA) that the money should be used to benefit the county where the tax revenues originated.
Revenue hoursthe time a bus or train spends serving passengers. (Also known as Revenue service)
RFQ Request for Quotation
Right-of-wayreal estate encumbered by someone other than the owner, for certain uses such as for access to another property; for example the railroad company reserves the right to use the area along rail road tracks for train passage even if some of the land is driveway our public property.
Regional Improvement ProgramState funding category created by SB 45 that can be used for a variety of projects, including for freeways, carpool lanes, rail lines, transit stations and road rehabilitation. RIP funds become part of a funding program known as the RTIP.
RIPRegional Improvement Program
RITAResearch and Innovative Technology Administration.
RTCCRegional Transit Coordinating Council; the council created by state statute and overseen by MTC to better coordinate transit routes, schedules, fare and transfers throughout the Bay Area, and to explore potential advantages of joint ventures in areas such as marketing, maintenance, and purchasing. Also see MTC.
RTIPRegional Transportation Improvement Program.
RTPRegional Transportation Plan.
RTPARegional Transportation Planning Agency.
RTSRail Transit System.
SACOGSacramento Area Council of Governments (SACOG) is an association of local governments in a six-county region centered on Sacramento, California. Its members include the counties of El Dorado, Placer, Sacramento, Sutter, Yolo and Yuba as well as the 22 cities listed below. SACOG provides transportation planning and funding for the region, and serves as a forum for the study and resolution of regional issues. In addition to preparing the region’s long-range transportation plan, SACOG approves the distribution of affordable housing in the region and assists in planning for transit, bicycle networks, clean air and airport land uses. (www.sacog.org). (see SCAG)
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act - A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)Federal legislation that authorizes and funds transit and highway programs through Fiscal Year 2009. Signed into law (Public Law 109-59) on August 10, 2005, SAFETEA-LU provides $23.4 billion in federal funds to California. Much of SAFETEA-LU echoes the previous two federal transportation program authorizations, the recent Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) passed in 1998, and the earlier Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). See also CTP.
SANBAG San Bernardino Associated Governments (see SCAG)
San Bernardino Associated Governments (SANBAG)in Santa Bernadino California; Darren Kettle, Executive Director.
SANDAG San Diego Association of Governments (see SCAG)
San Diego Association of Governmentsin Santa Diego California.
Santa Barbara County Association of Governments (SBCAG); in Santa Barbara California; Art Leahy, Chief Executive Officer.
SBCAG Santa Barbara County Association of Governments (see SCAG)
SB 375a 2008 California Senate Bill 375, the nation’s first law to control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by curbing sprawl, links land use policies that reduce GHG emissions to transportation investment. (see http://gov.ca.gov/index.php?/fact-sheet/10707/).
SB 45Senate Bill 45, 1997 California legislation that streamlined the STIP and transferred from the state to metropolitan regions more authority in deciding how to invest transportation funds.
SCAGSouthern California Association of Governments: The transportation planning, financing and coordinating agency and MPO for the six counties in the Southern California region. Hasan Ikhrata, Executive Director.
Southern California Association of GovernmentsThe transportation planning, financing and coordinating agency and MPO for the six counties in the Southern California region.
SCAQMD South Coast Air Quality Management District a California agency responsible for ensuring healthful air quality and administering air quality programs.
SCF Standard Cubic Foot.
SCFM Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. SCFM is the standard measurement for the flow rate of gas. A CNG station with a flow rate of 125 SCFM equates to 1 GGE per minute.
South Coast Air Quality Management Districta California agency.
SCRRA Southern California Regional Rail Authority. (http://www.metrolinktrains.com/about/)
SDAF Special District Augmentation Fund, created by the California legislature to supplement income to “special districts” lost as a result of Proposition 13.
sector governance councils LACMTA governing units intended to provide local control over bus changes.
Self-Help Counties California counties that have taken the initiative to supplement available state and federal funds by enacting local voter-approved funding mechanisms.
SEPTA Southeastern Pennsylvania Trp Authority (SEPTA) Philadelphia, PA , ranked 6 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 323,050.5.
SGC sector governance councils
SHA State Highway Account.
Shadow tolling a financing method where a private party agrees to design, construct, finance, operate, and maintain a facility and is paid by the public entity through a traffic based toll.
Sharrows arrow shaped markings painted on the street to indicate where bicycles should travel. Sharrows are used on streets that are too narrow for regular bike lanes. (http://www.livablestreets.com/streetswiki/sharrow)
SHOPP State Highway Operation and Protection Program
Short Range Transit Plan a capital and operating plan produced biennially with a 10-year horizon, prepared to qualify for federal, state, and local funding.
SIPState Implementation Plan.
SOV Single Occupancy Vehicle, and automobile carrying just one person.
SOWStatement of Work .
Spot time the time a bus sits at the end of line, usually defined by union contract. Also see Layover time.
Spread Time the length of a driver's assignment, whether a bus is in service or not. Also see Frag.
SRTP Short Range Transit Plan.
STAState Transit Assistance.
State Highway Operation and Protection Program (shopp)A California program used by Caltrans to maintain and operate state highways, using a four-year capital improvement plan, updated every two years, for the rehabilitation and operational improvement of the state’s highway system; one of the three major transportation funding sources administered by the California Transportation Commission CTC. SHOPP projects have first call on transportation dollars. The SHOPP includes schedules and cost estimates for all highway rehabilitation projects, such as repaving, as well as projects to improve safety and operations. SHOPP projects are funded based on statewide need, rather than through a geographic formula.
State Transit Assistance a California transportation funding program for mass transit operations and capital projects.
State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)A five-year capital improvement plan, updated every two years, for transportation projects throughout the state of California; one of the three major transportation funding sources administered by the California Transportation Commission. The STIP includes schedules and cost estimates for projects that add capacity to the state’s transportation infrastructure, such as widening freeways or modernizing buses. STIP funds are distributed by formula to regional and inter-regional projects. California Code Sections 14524 and 14525 require the Department of Transportation (Department) to present and the California Transportation Commission (CTC) to adopt a biennial State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) Fund Estimate (FE) to include and estimate all State and federal funds reasonably expected to be available for the biennial STIP, including the amount that may be programmed in each county for regional improvement programs; and the Department presented an overview of the process, schedule, and special issues, including uncertainty regarding major revenues that would impact the FE, at the Commission’s February 2007 meeting; on June 6, 2007, the Commission postponed the adoption of the 2008 FE and assumptions until enactment of the state Budget; identifies new programming capacity of $121 million from the Public Transportation Account (PTA), $147 million for federal Transportation Enhancement (TE) project funding, and $1.058 billion from other funds. Proposed Fund Estimate includes estimates of county and interregional shares and annual programming targets. wwwwwww
Statement of Work (SOW) a document that defines project objectives, constraints, and parameters for success, allowing stakeholders to set and measure key objectives.
STIPState Transportation Improvement Program.
STPSurface Transportation Program
Surface Transportation Program One of the key funding programs in TEA 21. STP monies may be spent on mass transit, pedestrian and bicycle facilities as well as on roads and highways. a href="#rrrrr">mmmmmm wwwwwww
Swale a low, wet tract of land; an area of landscaping designed to gather water.
TCIF Trade Corridor Improvement Fund (TCIF). mmmmmm wwwwwww
TCM Transportation Control Measure. A strategy to reduce driving or smooth traffic flows in order to cut auto emissions and resulting air pollution. Required by the Federal Clean Air Act, TCMs for the Los Angeles area are developed by MTA and SCAG. Examples of TCMs include carpool lanes (HOV lanes), Freeway Service Patrol, new or increased transit services, and ridesharing services to get people into carpools and vanpools, bicycle programs, flexible work schedules.
TCRA Traffic Congestion Relief Act.
TCRF Traffic Congestion Relief Fund.
TCRP Traffic Congestion Relief Program
TCS Train Control System.
TDA Transportation Development Act
Transportation Development Act (TDA) A California State law enacted in 1971 that makes funds available for the nine-county area served by MTC for transit, pedestrian/bicycle, community transit service, street/road purposes, and operations.. TDA funds are generated from a tax of ¼ of one percent on all retail sales in each county; used for transit, special transit for disabled persons, and bicycle and pedestrian purposes. Funds are collected by the state and allocated by MTC to fund transit operations and programs.
TDM Transportation Demand Management.
TDP Transportation Development Plan.
TEA Transportation Enhancement Activities.
TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Passed by Congress in May 1998, this federal transportation legislation retains and expands many of the programs created in 1991 under ISTEA. Reauthorizes federal surface transportation programs for six years (1998-2003), and significantly increases overall funding for transportation.
Therm 100,000 British thermal units (BTU). A common measure of gas as sold by utilities.
third rail also known as "Conductor Rail" is an additional rail used to conduct electricity for subway trains. When above ground sometimes an overhead catenary is used.
TIF Transportation Investment Fund.
TIFIA Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act of 1998.
Tilting Train a type of train that can lean into corners allowing the train to travel faster.
TIP Transit Improvement Program.
TLUC Transportation and Land use Collaborative
TMOTransportation Management Organization.
TOD transit-oriented development.
Tph Trains per hour.
trackbed the ground on which the railway tracks are laid.
Traffic Congestion Relief Plan funding for 141 specific California transportation projects; one of the three major transportation funding sources administered by the California Transportation Commission. The TCRP is funded separately from the STIP.
Traffic Congestion Relief Program (TCRP) a California transportation funding program. Through to 2008 the Proposition 42 revenues were divided as follows: $678 million for the Traffic Congestion Relief Program (TCRP), 40 percent of the remaining balance for the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), 40 percent of the remaining balance for local streets and roads (20 percent for cities and 20 percent for counties), 20 percent of the remaining balance for the Public Transportation Account (PTA). In 2008 Governor Schwarzenegger decided to ignore the will of the people and redirect those funds to other general programs.
Train Control System (TCS) a method of controlling train movement (see Positive Train Control)
Transit Improvement Program (TIP) a program operated by MTC whereby proposed capital projects are ranked according to criteria developed by a task force of regional transit operators.
Transportation and Land use Collaborative (TLUC) A group “Committed to significantly improving the quality of life for people who live and work in Southern California by ensuring that there is balance between growth, economic development and environmental stewardship.” in LA.
Transportation Control Measures Strategies listed in Section 108 of the Clean Air Act (CAA), to reduce transportation-related emissions by reducing vehicle use or improving traffic flow, and specifically identified and committed to in State Implementation Plans (SIPs).
Transportation Development Act California State law enacted in 1971 where funds generated from a tax of one-quarter of one percent on all retail sales in each county are used for transit, special transit for disabled persons, and bicycle and pedestrian purposes, they are collected by the state and allocated to fund transit operations and programs. In non-urban areas, TDA funds may be used for streets and roads under certain conditions (see Unmet Transit Needs Findings).
Transportation Enhancement Activities ten percent of California STP funds set aside for projects that enhance transportation facilities with things like bicycle and pedestrian paths, restoration of rail depots or other historic transportation facilities, acquisition of scenic or open space lands next to travel corridors, and murals or other public art projects.
Transportation Improvement ProgramA type of project funding in LA that comes with well defined strings attached.
Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act of 1998 (TIFIA) a Federal credit program for eligible transportation projects of national or regional significance under which the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) may provide three forms of credit assistance – secured (direct) loans, loan guarantees, and standby lines of credit. (tifia.fhwa.dot.gov)
Transportation Research Board One of six major divisions of the National Research Council— a private, nonprofit institution that is the principal operating agency of the National Academies in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The National Research Council is jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. TRB’s varied activities engage more than 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia who contribute their expertise in the public interest by participating on TRB committees, panels, and task forces. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.trb.org
TRB Transportation Research Board
Transportation Safety Institute (TSI) a Federal Transit Administration-sponsored institute that conducts rail and bus safety investigation and training. (www.tsi.dot.gov).
TriMet Tri-County Metropolitan Trp District of Oregon (TriMet) Portland, OR , ranked 15 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 101,575.2.
TriMTicket Reading and Issuing Machine, a machine that is attached to the farebox where magnetic fare media can be both issued and read.
TrunklineA route along a major corridor that carries a large number of passengers and operates at headway frequencies of 15 minutes or less. see Feeder line and Headway
U.S. DOT United States Department of Transportation, established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, is responsible for highways, mass transit, aviation and ports. Includes the FHWA and the FTA, among others. (www.dot.gov/) mmmmmm
ULEV Ultra Low Emission Vehicle.
Union Station A major rail station in Los Angeles that connects commuter rail (Metrolink/ Amtrak), light rail (Metro red, blue, and gold lines), and several major bus lines. Although Amtrak uses the LAX as the code for Union Station, it is actually located just north east of downtown at 800 North Alameda Street Los Angeles, CA 90012, 60 miles from LAX airport; you'll need to take a shuttle to get the rest of the way.
Van Hool a bus manufacturer with headquarters in Antwerp, Belgium. http://www.vanhool.be
VCTC Ventura County Transportation Commission
Ventura Intercity Service Transit Authority (VISTA)a public transit agency providing bus service in Ventura County, California. Formed in 1994, under the authority of the Ventura County Transportation Commission (VCTC), VISTA is intended to provide an intercity bus service between Ventura, Oxnard, Camarillo, Thousand Oaks, Moorpark, Santa Paula, Fillmore and Warner Center. mmmmmm http://www.goventura.org.
Ventura County Transportation Commission (VCTC) created by state legislation in 1988, is a governing board that develops and implements transportation policies, projects, funding and priorities for a transportation in Ventura California. The transportation issues the Commission is responsible for include highways, bus services, aviation services, commuter and freight railroads, bicycling and bike paths, as well as many other transportation areas. VCTC also controls and reviews the use of federal, state and local funds for transportation and related projects and serves as the Airport Land Use Commission, Service Authority for the Freeway Emergencies and the Congestion Management Agency.
Verification of Transit Training Certificate a certification of completion of California bus operator training. To meet the legal standards for operating a transit bus, the operator must possess a VTT, a valid medical certificate and a commercial driver license.(Also see CDL 1-4 and CDL 5).
VISTA Ventura Intercity Service Transit Authority wwwwwww
VMT Vehicle Miles Traveled.
VTT Verification of Transit Training.
wayside workerSomeone who works along the tracks, such as flag persons.
Wheel TrucksWheel trucks are the US term for bogies; the part of a train's undercarriage to which the wheel axles are connected.
WMATA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Washington, DC , ranked 4 in Unlinked Passenger Trips, Fiscal Year 2006 (Thousands) at 408,988.3.
ZVI Zone of Visual Influence.

The following definitions are from the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 62: Improving Public Transportation Access to Large Airports and the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), 2004 Public Transportation Fact-book to describe ground connection services at airports

Metropolitan Statistical Area: A geographic entity having a core area with a large population nucleus, plus adjacent communities with a high degree of economic and social integration with that core.

Transit Buses: These buses usually do not have luggage compartments or restroom facilities, and serve a specific intra-city or regional service area. Bus types may include electrically powered trolleybuses, dual-mode trolley buses, articulated buses, replica trolleys, or double-decked buses.

Inter-city buses: Usually with separate luggage compartments and restroom facilities and high-backed seats for use in high-speed long-distance service, and typically providing service to cities outside the metropolitan statistical area in which an airport is located.

Bus Rapid Transit: Express bus service characterized by the use of a dedicated roadway or restricted usage lanes, and a limited number of stops.

Commuter Rail: Electric or diesel propelled railway for urban passenger train service consisting of local short distance travel operating between a central city and adjacent suburbs. Service is operated on a regular basis by or under contract with a transit operator for the purpose of transporting passengers within or between urbanized areas and outlying areas. A commuter rail (CR) car is a commuter rail mode passenger car - either an un-powered passenger coach that is pulled or pushed by one or more locomotives, or a self-propelled passenger car that has an onboard power source or that draws power from overhead electric wires (i.e., METRA commuter rail train in Chicago). A locomotive is a power unit vehicle that does not carry passengers that is used to pull or push commuter rail passenger coaches.

Heavy Rail: An electric railway with the capacity for a heavy volume of traffic characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration passenger rail cars operating singly or in multi-car trains on fixed rails excluding all other vehicular and foot traffic and having an on-board operator. These transit systems (i.e., metro, subway, rapid transit, or rapid rail) are defined by their operation on a totally separated right-of-way, and use of a third rail on the ground to power the trains. Heavy rail systems require platform boarding, typically have longer distances between stations, and have a greater capacity than Light Rail systems (i.e., MTA New York City Transit heavy rail train).

Automated Guide-way: an electric railway (single or multi-car trains) of guided transit vehicles operating without an on-board crew. Service may be scheduled or in response to a passenger activated call button. An automated guide-way (AG) car is a guided passenger car operating under a fully automated system without an onboard crew (i.e., people mover), which typically operates on a loop or shuttle route within the central business district of a city. The Newark Airport Air-Train in New Jersey uses monorail technology, but is an automated guide-way since the trains do not have operators.

Monorail: An electric railway of guided transit vehicles suspended from or straddle and/or guide-way formed by a single beam, rail, or tube.

Light Rail: Usually driven by electric power taken from overhead lines, and usually, operates much, or all, of its route on non-exclusive right-of-way. A metropolitan-electric railway system characterized by its ability to operate in a variety of environments such as streets, subways, or elevated structures. Light rail systems can operate on streets with other traffic. They typically use an overhead source for their electrical power and boarding take place from the street or platforms. Light rail systems operate in both exclusive and shared right-of-way environments, and have stricter limits on their length and the frequency of service than heavy rail systems.

High Speed Rail (HSR): refers to a series of technologies involving trains traveling at top speeds of 90 to 300mph. This service may require separate, dedicated tracks and "sealed" corridors in which grade crossings have been eliminated, either through closure or through the construction of highway underpasses or overpasses.

High Speed Rail Corridor: A geographical area designated by the Federal Railroad Administration to receive specially targeted funding for highway-rail grade crossing safety improvements, and recognized as a potential center of HSR activity.

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